Archive for the ‘Ecuador’ Category

3 Dec
2010

Estudio Comparativo sobre la Distribuci贸n de la Renta Petrolera Estudio de Casos: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Peru

El presente informe forma parte del “Estudio Comparativo de la generaci贸n y distribuci贸n de la Renta Petrolera y las Comunidades Ind铆genas” (Estudio), llevado a cabo en Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Per煤. El Estudio fue realizado a requerimiento del Programa Energ铆a, Ambiente Y Poblaci贸n (EAP), iniciativa tripartita que re煤ne a gobiernos, organizaciones ind铆genas, empresas petroleras y organizaciones empresariales, que comparten la cuenca Amaz贸nica en b煤squeda de mejorar el conocimiento mutuo y desarrollar una industria petrolera compatible con los principios del desarrollo sostenible. El EAP, cuenta con el apoyo de varias instituciones, en particular la Organizaci贸n Latinoam茅rica de Energ铆a (OLADE), el Banco Mundial, la Coordinadora de Organizaciones Ind铆genas de la Cuenca Amaz贸nica (COICA), la Fundaci贸n Carl Duisberg Geselischaft, la Corporaci贸n Andina de Fomento (CAF), la Universidad de Calgary, la Agencia Canadiense para el Desarrollo Internacional, y la Asociaci贸n de Empresas de Petr贸leo y Gas de Am茅rica Latina y el Caribe (ARPEL)

3 Dec
2010

Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador

The tropical forests of Ecuador are among the most biologically diverse natural ecosystems on earth, and are home to peasants and several indigenous groups. The Amazon also has hundreds of oil fields, the most important source of income in Ecuador. Since 1972, foreign oil companies, led by Texaco and Ecuador鈥檚 national oil company, Petroecuador, have extracted more than two billion barrels of crude oil from the Ecuadorian Amazon. Currently, 13 companies are operating in the country: 1 private national, Petroecuador, and 11 foreign companies. Oil has been the lynchpin of the economy. The 1970s oil price boom lifted Ecuador from being one of the poorest countries in Latin America鈥攑er capita income rose from $290 in 1972 to $1490 in 1982, decreasing to $1390 in 1995. Today, oil continues to account for nearly 50% of the nation鈥檚 income from exports and government budget. However, in this development process, billions of gallons of untreated waste, gas, and crude oil have been released into the environment

3 Dec
2010

Governance Crisis and the Andean Region: A Political Economy Analysis

As of the early 21st century, the Andean region of Latin America is experiencing governance and economic difficulties that compound its structural problems of poverty, slow growth, inequality and financial volatility. Governance difficulties are manifested in a high turnover of authorities, low rankings in international indices of institutional effectiveness, recurrent political crisis, and potential fragility of democracy. Moreover, violence is serious in Colombia — over 40,000 people die per year for violent causes (political and criminal)— as the country lives through a four decade old internal conflict

3 Dec
2010

Hard Correa

The two-month-old government of leftist Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa and the popular movements that back him have emerged triumphant from their first battle with the oligarchy and traditional political parties that have historically dominated the country. Correa, in his inaugural address in January, called for a “new socialism of the twenty-first century” and declared that Ecuador has to end “the perverse system that has destroyed our democracy, our economy and our society”

3 Dec
2010

Investment Policy Review: Ecuador

Ecuador, like many developing countries, aims at increasing the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in its development not only through attracting more FDI but also through benefiting from it more in terms of technology, employment, exports, skills and, in general, competitiveness. To achieve this, Ecuador, in concert with other member countries of the Community of the Andean Nations (CAN), liberalised FDI policies in the early 1990s. In addition, it opened up its economy to international trade, reformed its tax and fiscal systems and tried to initiate a privatization programme.

3 Dec
2010

Money and the Rule of Law in Ecuador

The rule of law is defined and its implications in the monetary sphere are elaborated. When national monetary arrangements fail to comport with the rule of law, 鈥渄ollarization鈥 is desirable. That policy provides for more stable money and expectations about its future value. The salutary effects of Ecuador鈥檚 鈥渄ollarization鈥 program of 2000 are reviewed. In addition, a manifesto for economic reform in Ecuador is presented. Its elements are: financial integration, fiscal transparency and control, tax simplification and reform, supermajority voting, deregulation, and privatization

3 Dec
2010

Natural Resources & Foreign Investors: A tale of three Andean countries

Over the past 25 years, Latin American governments have undertaken a structural-adjustment process including, among other actions, the elimination of trade barriers, privatization of large public domestic firms, and deregulation of markets. This move towards deregulation and market reform has included a new embrace of foreign direct investment, even in the strategic oil-and-gas industry. Considering the former regulations and polices in this sector introduced during the nationalization wave of the 1970s, the transformation has been amazing: foreign investors have not only been welcomed but even granted proprietary rights over extracted oil. Most Latin American oil-and-gas-producing countries agreed to fix royalties at very low levels. Furthermore, the 1990s witnessed the rise of bilateralism (bilateral investment treaties (BITs) plus International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) jurisdiction), which transformed the institutional framework governing the relationship between foreign investors and host states

3 Dec
2010

Nonviolent Insurrection in Ecuador: The 1944 Glorious May Revolution

In her 1988 book Nonviolent Insurrection in El Salvador: The Fall of Maximiliano Hern谩ndez Mart铆nez, Patricia Parkman describes a 1944 military-civilian rebellion and a subsequent civic strike as an example of a nonviolent movement which successfully removed a brutal dictator from power in Central America. On May 28 of the same year, a similar alliance with a strong and active presence of women, students, Indians, peasants and other elements of civil society similarly brought an end to the Carlos Arroyo del R铆o government in Ecuador. These types of general strikes are common in Latin America, but are rarely interpreted as examples of nonviolent movements. This paper applies Parkman鈥檚 theoretical model to Ecuador with an eye toward understanding how a peace perspective can lead to a better understanding of social movements in that country

3 Dec
2010

Partidos pol铆ticos: el eslab贸n perdido de la representaci贸n

La celebraci贸n de la primera vuelta de la elecci贸n presidencial, el 16 de julio de 1978, marc贸 un paso concreto en la transici贸n democr谩tica de Ecuador. Todos los actores involucrados hab铆an cumplido con el compromiso adquirido: los militares auspiciaron una pac铆fica transici贸n pactada; los candidatos presidenciales se registraron en partidos pol铆ticos legalmente constituidos; y m谩s del 80% del electorado ecuatoriano acudi贸 a las urnas en aquella jornada. En ese ambiente de festivo retorno a la democracia, no faltaron quienes se adelantaron a alabar los logros y aciertos del arreglo institucional recientemente aprobado, prediciendo que 鈥…la Ley de Partidos est谩 vigente y, observando los resultados electorales desde la 贸ptica de sus enunciados, es muy posible que de los 14 partidos originalmente admitidos como tales, el pa铆s deba en el futuro asistir a la contienda entre s贸lo cinco de ellos, presenciando la descalificaci贸n de nueve organizaciones y movimientos pol铆ticos鈥 (Dom铆nguez, 1978: 30). Los pron贸sticos optimistas se derrumbaron despu茅s de poco tiempo: en las elecciones de 1984, 9 candidatos compitieron por la presidencia de la Rep煤blica; 10 candidatos compitieron en 1988; y 12 candidatos hicieron lo propio en 1992. Un indicador muy frecuentado para medir el grado de

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