Archive for December, 2010

3 Dec
2010

Ecuador, 2010 Country Review

The first inhabitants of the Andean region arrived around 8,000 before the common era, or B.C.E., and over the next several millennia, hunter-gatherer groups spread throughout the region. Before the Inca conquest, the area that comprises modern-day Ecuador was populated by a number of distinct tribes that spoke different languages and were often at war with each other. The culturally related Esmeralda, Manta, Huancavilca, and Puná groups, whose subsistence was based on hunting, fishing, agriculture and trade, occupied the coastal lowlands. In the Sierras resided the Pasto, Cara, Panzaleo, Puruhá, Cañari, and Palta cultures, whose widely dispersed mountain villages subsisted on the cultivation of maize, quinoa, beans and many varieties of potatoes and squashes, frequently with the use of complex irrigation systems.

3 Dec
2010

Ecuador: COUNTRY STRATEGY PAPER

Ecuador is the smallest of the Andean countries, with a land area of 256 670 km². It is divided into four main geographical regions: mountain range, coast, east and insular (the Galapagos archipelago). It has a population of more than 12 million habitants, 63.9% of whom are located in urban areas, while 36.1% are in the rural areas. Population growth has slowed during the last years and continues to do so, being at the moment +1.9%. Ecuador is characterised by great geographical, economic and ethnic diversity. In the Andean highlands, whose major cities include the capital city of Quito and the commercial centres of Cuenca and Ambato, economic activity is dominated by smallscale farming and services. The coastal area, and its major port city of Guayaquil, have thrived on commerce, and agricultural and fishing exports. Finally, the sparsely populated Amazon region contains most of the country’s largest export earner: oil.

3 Dec
2010

In the Grip of the Anaconda

If Plan Colombia is an anaconda trying to wrap its coils around Latin America, Ecuador is already in its grip:
The United States has turned Manta Air Force Base on the Pacific Coast into a key link in its region-wide air surveillance system. Northeast Ecuador’s border regions are in danger of becoming new zones of conflict as Colombian drug traffickers, guerrillas, military and paramilitary forces filter into border towns, and civilian refugees scatter. Many Ecuadorians are protesting If Colombia I their nation’s role in Plan Colombia. It puts the squeeze, they next Vietnam believe, on Ecuador’s peace and sovereignty and could have seri- fear, Ecuador ous environmental effects, even “the next as it furthers neoliberal economic goals and U.S. security interests that go well beyond fighting drugs.

3 Dec
2010

Ecuador: Political and Economic Situation and U.S. Relations

Ecuador, a small, oil-producing country in the Andean region of South America, has experienced ten years of political and economic instability. On January 15, 2007, Rafael Correa, a left-leaning, U.S.-trained economist, was inaugurated to a four-year presidential term, becoming the country’s eighth president in ten years. President Correa has fulfilled his campaign pledge to call a constituent assembly to reform the country’s constitution. The assembly, which is controlled by representatives from Correa’s party, has until the end of July 2008 to draft a new constitution. Many Ecuadorians approved of Correa’s condemnation of Colombia’s unauthorized March 2008 raid of a Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) camp in Ecuador. They also support his decision not to renew the current U.S. lease on the air force base at Manta when it expires in 2009, a decision which has strained U.S.-Ecuadorian relations. U.S. officials have expressed concerns about President Correa’s ties with Hugo Chávez of Venezuela and his stated polices on trade and energy matters. Despite those concerns, Congress enacted legislation in February 2008 to extend U.S. trade preferences for Ecuador through December 2008. For more information, see CRS Report RS22548, ATPA Renewal: Background and Issues.

3 Dec
2010

Ecuador: General Situations and Trends; Socioeconomic, Political, and Demographic Overview

Despite a severe economic and political crisis, during the 1990s Ecuador succeeded in strengthening its democratic constitutional regime and assuming its identity as a multicultural, multiethnic, and multilingual society. The administration that took office in August 1992 undertook to restore the macroeconomic equilibrium and modernize the State. For this purpose it created the National Modernization Council under the Office of the President, which negotiated the first privatizations of public agencies and presented proposals for decentralization, reducing the size of the State apparatus, and reforming social security.

3 Dec
2010

El Poder de la Diversidad Cultural

La diversidad cultural de Iberoamérica es innegable. Pero ¿tiene poder la diversidad? Las ciencias sociales, la literatura, las artes visuales y mediáticas, el periodismo y los debates políticos han revelado la heterogeneidad del mundo llamado iberoamericano y se preguntan qué hacer con ella. ¿Es posible concebir como unidad este universo y desarrollar políticas conjuntas entre España, Portugal y el conjunto de países latinoamericanos? No sólo separan a estas naciones las dos lenguas dominantes –español y portugués–, sino las centenares de lenguas indígenas, las poderosas herencias de origen afroamericano, fronteras nacionales en disputa y las culturas regionales que –tanto en la península ibérica como en América Latina– fragmentan la unidad proclamada por los Estados nacionales

3 Dec
2010

Elections in Ecuador: 2009

On the 26th of April approximately 10 500 000 Ecuadorians participated in the elections for president, vice-president, representatives of the national assembly, and regional and local authorities. For the first time, youth down to 16 years of age, non-convicted prisoners and military personnel were granted suffrage. The turnout was also significant among Ecuadorian migrants living in Europe, the United States, and other countries in Latin America

3 Dec
2010

Estudio Comparativo sobre la Distribución de la Renta Petrolera Estudio de Casos: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Peru

El presente informe forma parte del “Estudio Comparativo de la generación y distribución de la Renta Petrolera y las Comunidades Indígenas” (Estudio), llevado a cabo en Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. El Estudio fue realizado a requerimiento del Programa Energía, Ambiente Y Población (EAP), iniciativa tripartita que reúne a gobiernos, organizaciones indígenas, empresas petroleras y organizaciones empresariales, que comparten la cuenca Amazónica en búsqueda de mejorar el conocimiento mutuo y desarrollar una industria petrolera compatible con los principios del desarrollo sostenible. El EAP, cuenta con el apoyo de varias instituciones, en particular la Organización Latinoamérica de Energía (OLADE), el Banco Mundial, la Coordinadora de Organizaciones Indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica (COICA), la Fundación Carl Duisberg Geselischaft, la Corporación Andina de Fomento (CAF), la Universidad de Calgary, la Agencia Canadiense para el Desarrollo Internacional, y la Asociación de Empresas de Petróleo y Gas de América Latina y el Caribe (ARPEL)

3 Dec
2010

Exposures and cancer incidence near oil fields in the Amazon basin of Ecuador

The tropical forests of Ecuador are among the most biologically diverse natural ecosystems on earth, and are home to peasants and several indigenous groups. The Amazon also has hundreds of oil fields, the most important source of income in Ecuador. Since 1972, foreign oil companies, led by Texaco and Ecuador’s national oil company, Petroecuador, have extracted more than two billion barrels of crude oil from the Ecuadorian Amazon. Currently, 13 companies are operating in the country: 1 private national, Petroecuador, and 11 foreign companies. Oil has been the lynchpin of the economy. The 1970s oil price boom lifted Ecuador from being one of the poorest countries in Latin America—per capita income rose from $290 in 1972 to $1490 in 1982, decreasing to $1390 in 1995. Today, oil continues to account for nearly 50% of the nation’s income from exports and government budget. However, in this development process, billions of gallons of untreated waste, gas, and crude oil have been released into the environment

Follow Me!

Follow Me! Follow Me! Follow Me! Follow Me!